Violence and Injury Prevention

This month, NASW’s social work research pages address violence and injury prevention. Given the broad scope of this area, the information provided here is not intended to be a comprehensive review of social work research relating to violence; instead, it targets child maltreatment and domestic violence.

Research in this area is funded by a number of governmental sources, including:

  • National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
  • Bureau of Maternal and Child Health
  • Children’s Bureau

Much of the information presented results from, and is referenced in, a report and conference conducted by the Institute for the Advancement of Social Work Research (IASWR), through funding from the CDC’s National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (The Injury Center). The Injury Center ’s mission is to: “Prevent premature death and disability and to reduce the human suffering and medical costs caused by injuries” (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2002, p. 1). While this project focused on child maltreatment and domestic violence, it also served to link the social work and public health perspectives on this arena.

The IASWR Report: Child Maltreatment and Domestic Violence, Including Violence Against Women , which can be found online at www.iaswresearch.org identifies and documents contributions from social work research in violence prevention, especially in the areas of child maltreatment and domestic violence. It also identifies ways the social work profession contributes to the priorities laid out in the CDC Injury Center ’s Research Agenda created in 2002 which can be found here.

A listing of NASW resources (which are available on www.socialworkers.org ) related to this subject is located in Appendix 3, pp. 52-53, in the IASWR report.re

In addition to a literature review, IASWR convened several social work researchers in this field to present and discuss their findings along with Injury Center staff. An agenda was formulated recommending future research and action steps to more closely link social work and public health research in this important social concern. Following are some highlights of the identified research, as well as recommendations.

Violence: Problem and Context

Violence operates at many levels. Its viciousness manifests not only in the individual acts of violence portrayed so constantly in the media, but also at the institutional, systemic, and international levels, where groups and targeted categories of people endure chronic harms, injustices, and hardships. Examples of systemic harm include economic exploitation and poverty, unequal treatment under the law, prevalent human rights violations, and repressive military actions. These more insidious, often socially accepted harms frequently lay the groundwork for outbursts of individual or group violence that erupt in seemingly disconnected circumstances worldwide.

- Violence and Development Project Bulletin , May 1997, available at https://www.socialworkers.org/practice/violence/violproj.asp

Statistically, women are the primary victims of domestic and sexual violence. Although women can be perpetrators of domestic violence, 95 percent of victims of intimate partner violence are women (McKenzie, 1995, p.9). Approximately 25 percent of women have been raped or physically assaulted by an intimate partner (CDC, 2003).

Additionally, every year an estimated 896,000 children experience child maltreatment (USDHHS, 2004), although the National Incidence Study indicates that as many as 1,553,800 may be abused or neglected (Sedlak & Broadhurst, 1996). More than 60 percent of child maltreatment is directly related to neglect, although physical, sexual, and emotional abuse get more attention from the public, policymakers, and the research community.

Child maltreatment, intimate partner violence, and violence against women are interrelated; often occurring within the same households. It is estimated that in 45 to 70 percent of cases in which there is domestic violence, child maltreatment also occurs (Foley, Berns, Test, Bragg, & Schechter, 2000). A national survey of more than 6,000 U.S. families revealed that 50 percent of men who frequently assaulted their partners also abused their children (American Humane Association, 1995).

The NASW Practice Research Network (PRN) survey of the Association’s members indicated that only one percent [reported working in the field of] violence as their primary practice area (February 2003, NASW News ).

Social Work Research Strategy Development

Over the past decade there has been a targeted increase of federal support for social work research and an organized effort by the social work community to encourage and advise social work researchers to seek funding from NIH and other federal agencies.

In June 2002, the National Institute of Mental Health hosted a scientific meeting on social work’s contribution to mental health research. Many of the peer-reviewed presentations addressed research findings highlighting the interconnectedness of mental health, substance abuse, and violence.

Furthermore, since 1993, NIDA and NIMH have funded 14 social work research development programs. Each of these centers undertaken research that has relevance to the Injury Center research agenda.

Additionally, the Injury Center provided funding to IASWR to examine how best to incorporate an organized strategy to ensure social work involvement in addressing priority public health concerns.

IASWR worked with the social work community to identify social work involvement in the development and implementation of research-based practices that promote effective prevention and intervention strategies to prevent and control child maltreatment and domestic violence, including violence against women. The approach followed The Injury Center’s Research Agenda.

Social Work Research Related to Violence
  • Completed in 2000, CDC funded an evaluation to study the effectiveness of coordinated community responses to violence against women. The resulting report addresses: 1) Improvement of rates of identification and referral of domestic violence victims by agency practitioners; 2) Overall effectiveness of the project in terms of reducing recidivism and abusive behavior and improving victim safety; 3) Effectiveness of the Enhanced Men’s Non-Violence Program; 4) Use of risk assessment by practitioners and its’ relationship to recidivism. Melanie Shepard and Dennis Falk of the Department of Social Work, University of Minnesota-Duluth conducted the study of a program funded by CDC at the Duluth Domestic Violence Abuse Intervention Project (Shepard, http://www.duluth-model.org/daipeval.htm and http://www.d.umn.edu/%7Emshepard/DAIP.html2003 ).
  • CDC funded an intervention research project to develop, implement and evaluate a domestic violence intervention using traditional Native Hawaiian beliefs, values and practices with Native Hawaiian batterers and battered women in Hawaii . This examination of a coordinated community response evaluates the effectiveness of using cultural specific interventions. It is a 5-year project that began in 2000 and is a collaboration between the University of Hawaii School of Social Work and two community based programs – a domestic violence service agency and a Native Hawaiian child welfare/community development organization serving Native Hawaiian orphaned and destitute children. Valli Kalei Kanuha, School of Social Work , University of Hawaii , is the principal investigator (V.K. Kanuha, personal communication, December 10, 2002 ).
  • CDC funded in 2003, a three year project to develop a program to prevent aggression, violence and substance abuse among Hispanic youth in North Carolina . The intent of this three-phase project is to help North Carolina schools aid Hispanic students and their families. Research will include conducting in-depth interviews to try to learn how risk and protective factors in the acculturation process affect youth violence and suicide rates. Next researchers will use this collected information to create a program to prevent violence and suicide geared toward Hispanic students. Finally, researchers will collaborate with schools to pilot the new program among Hispanic adolescents from rural and urban counties. This new research project, will investigate much needed information regarding risk and protective factors against youth violence and suicide. Paul Smokowski and Mimi Chapin, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Social Work serve as principal investigators. The project will also develop interventions and evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions.
  • Promoting Assets Across Cultures, Nancy Farwell, University of Washington School of Social Work is utilizing participatory action research (PAR) methods to assess youth leadership, community-building, and community mobilization activities with the purpose of promoting healthy interethnic and intergenerational relationships in Seattle Housing Authority’s “Garden Communities.” ( http://depts.washington.edu/sswweb/resweb/researcher_index.html )
Research on Consequences of Domestic Violence and/or Child Maltreatment on Children and Adolescents
  1. Examining the impact of family violence on child behavior, developmental patterns and outcomes, University of Washington School of Social Work investigators presented a symposium at the 2003 SSWR conference, highlighting findings from several studies. Linked to data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective study that began in the 1970’s, to examine the correlates and consequences of child maltreatment, the University of Washington research suggests:.
    • A significant relationship between exposure to domestic violence and risk of depression and high school dropout rates Findings suggest a causal relationship between exposure to domestic violence and important long-term consequences in adolescence.
    • Physical abuse, psychological abuse and child endangerment may predict both youth violence and substance use in adolescence
    • Different parenting styles in regard to how children are disciplines may result in different youth outcomes. . (Herrenkohl, T. I., Tajima, E.A., Huang, B., Whitney , S.D. , Kim, M-J, 2003).
  2. Limited research exists on the impact of substantiated maltreatment of adolescents on antisocial behavior. This study, by Smith and Ireland , presented at the 2003 SSWR Conference examines incidences of adolescent maltreatment and finds that experiencing substantiated maltreatment leads to increased odds of arrest, general delinquency, violent crime and illicit drug use. The research provides information for further discussion of implications for professional educational training, improving prevention and treatment of adolescent maltreatment, and child welfare interventions (Smith, C. & Ireland, T., 2003
Research on Risk Factors

Investigations of risk and protective factors of intimate partner violence, child maltreatment and sexual violence are important. If it is possible to determine risk factors of violence, it may be possible to determine preventative measures to address those risks. Several studies investigate the link of substance abuse, poverty, and/or mental health issues to experience of domestic violence, child abuse and neglect and sexual violence.

  1. 5-year demonstration project conducted by the University of Maryland , and carried out in a neighborhood setting, focused on increasing safety and well being for families at risk for child neglect. The preliminary results of this DHHS Children’s Bureau (0ffice on Child Abuse and Neglect) grant indicate that long term interventions with families may be helpful for the caregivers’ well-being, and consequently the family and children’s well-being, reducing incidences of neglect. (DePanfilis, Daining, Ting, Park, & Haynes, 2003). The intervention model is guided by eight principles: 1) Community-based outreach, 2) Family assessment and tailored intervention, 3) Development of a helping alliance, 4) Empowerment-based practice, 5) Application of the strengths perspective, 6) Culturally competent intervention, 7) Outcome-driven service plans, 8) Developmental appropriateness of interventions. The Administration for Children and Families selected Family Connections as the only “Demonstrated Effective” program in its new publication on effective child abuse prevention programs (Caliber Associates, 2003).
  2. The Office on Child Abuse and Neglect, of the Children’s Bureau funded a five year study being carried out by Principal Investigator Brett Drake and colleagues at Washington University (DHHS-ACF 90CA 159103) to examine the relationships between substantiation status and mental health services use to future recurrence of child maltreatment. The Substantiated and Unsubstantiated Cases: Patterns and Predictors of Recurrence, used a longitudinal research design to follow two sets of children, examining likelihood of recurrence of reports of maltreatment, placement and child fatality ( http://gwbweb.wustl.edu/projects/childabusepredictors/ )
  3. As one of the initiatives supported through the NIH Child Abuse and Neglect Initiative, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development is funding a K Award, that involves a longitudinal study to examine the close association between child neglect, poverty and welfare use. This study addresses why and how poverty and welfare use may matter in the etiology of different forms of neglect. This research will examine at-risk populations and look to identify any factors in welfare income level change and/or welfare use that may moderate child neglect. Results could impact welfare reform policies and perhaps mitigate occurrences of child neglect. (Shook, 2003)
  4. D. Casey Family Programs has supported the development of a comprehensive assessment tool to assess the skills and abilities of adolescents in foster care to move toward independence. The Ansell-Casey Life Skills Assessment (ACLSA) (www.casey.org) now has collected data on adolescents in 23 states. It is a free assessment tool that several school systems are now beginning to use.
  5. E. The Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory (Tolman, 2003) is a scale created to assist in carrying out research with women who have been abused. Tolman who studies mental health, abuse and health issues of low-income single women and the traumatic effects of abusive behavior created it. (http://www.ssw.umich.edu/faculty/profile-rtolman.html). Tolman received NIMH funding to examine the prevalence and co-morbidity of psychiatric disorders, physical disabilities, and domestic violence among low-income single mothers, and to examine the relationship of these problems to unemployment and dependency on welfare.
  6. F. Tandem Risk: Outcomes for Children of Teen Mothers, is a NIDA funded, five year study carried out by Lewayne Gilchrist ( University of Washington ), to examine the risk and protective factors experienced by a cohort of women who gave birth as teens and their children. The longitudinal study will contribute to new models of intergenerational transmission of both problematic outcomes and resilience in a sample presumed to be at high risk for negative social and developmental outcomes.
  7. G. Domestic Violence and Urban Preschool Children is an NIMH funded exploratory study (Grant Number: 1R03MH061762-01) being carried out by Ellen Devoe at Columbia University to identify the different contexts in which urban preschool children (ages 3-5) witness domestic violence and will examine the relationship between domestic violence and preschool children’s behavioral and emotional functioning and traumatic stress symptoms. This research will extend knowledge about young children’s responses to domestic violence and will inform the development of age appropriate and empirically based intervention targeting the specific needs of preschool age children.
  8. H. Child Neglect-Cross Sector Service Paths and Outcomes, is an NIMH funded study (Grant Number 5R01MH061733-03) by Melissa Jonson-Reid ( Washington University ). This longitudinal study examines the utilization of services by neglected children and their families, comparing families receiving AFDC and reported to child welfare agencies for abuse and/or neglect, and those families not reported to child welfare. It examines child and adolescent outcomes and the association between positive family outcomes in child welfare and income maintenance programs.
  9. I. Sheryl Pimlott-Kubiak, Wayne State University, is undertaking a secondary analysis (supported by the National Institute of Justice and CDC) of the Violence Against Women dataset, to provide empirical evidence for ’situational’ vulnerability to the physical and mental health sequelae associated with violence, based on the constellation of events that occur, regardless of gender. (personal communication 12.3. 2002).
  10. J. Kenneth Corvo and his collaborators ( Syracuse University ) have examined a range of risk factors related to the physical and behavioral consequences of alcohol abuse and its connection to domestic violence as well as intergenerational transmission of domestic violence.
  11. K. Reducing Perinatal Depression and Enhancing Parenting is a randomized controlled clinical study, supported by NIMH, conducted by Luis Zayas (Washington University http://gwbweb.wustl.edu/users/cmhsr/ ), to determine the extent to which psychosocial intervention combining cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression with child development information and social support reduces depressive symptomatology and risks of impairments in maternal interactions with infants among 300 low SES women during pregnancy and early postpartum receiving prenatal services at inner-city primary care clinics of a major medical center.
Research on Domestic Violence
  1. Poco Smith ( Wayne State University ) is studying female perpetrated domestic violence in relation to attitudes, motivations and context. Since theories and models of treatment are often focused on the male perpetrator, it is important to examine female issues in order to develop appropriate treatment approaches.
  2. Roni Berger and Ellen Rosenberg ( Adelphi University ) are studying the experience of abused divorced mothers with their children’s law guardians.
  3. The National Institute on Justice is supporting, Protection of Women: Health and Justice Outcomes Study, a 24 month longitudinal study, carried out under the leadership of Paula Nurius (University of Washington) to examine medical, violence, legal, social service, and intra- and interpersonal psychological functioning data to assess the relationship of protection orders to a range of health, mental health, and justice outcomes relative to intimate partner violence (IPV). “This research will apply a contextual coping analysis to battered women’s experience of stressors, the mediating roles of coping capacity (intrapersonal, interpersonal, resources and sociocultural and environmental characteristics) between stressors and protective actions taken by her, and the importance of these factors in reducing subsequent assailant violence and improving the battered woman’s mental health functioning and well being.” ( http://depts.washington.edu/sswweb/resweb/researcher_index.html )
Research on Impact of Community Violence
  1. Beth Rosenthal, York College, City University of New York received support from the National Institute for General Medical Services (NIGMS – #5S06GM008153-260014) at NIH for “Exposure to Chronic Community Violence and Its Results” to study the impact of exposure to community violence on urban adolescents from minority ethnic backgrounds, including examination of individual, family and community risk and protective factors.
  2. Kathryn Collins, University of Pittsburgh is undertaking several funded studies to examine children’s exposure to violence, trauma symptomatology, and community violence prevention interventions. Using an ecological perspective, she is exploring the barriers that limit children who are exposed to violence in their homes, schools and communities to access proper mental health care ( http://www.pitt.edu/~pittssw/faculty/collins.html ).
Research on Welfare Reform and Domestic Violence
  • The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation supported several reports that looked at the impact of Domestic Violence on welfare reform, after the 1996 passage of the Personal Responsibility and Welfare Reform Act, because there were special provisions in the legislation that were intended to protect women on welfare who also were victims of domestic violence. Jeffrey Edleson, University of Minnesota has completed several relevant reports ( www.mincava.umn.edu ). In addition the NIMH funded Center on Poverty, Risk and Mental Health at the University of Michigan has looked closely at the characteristics of different populations of women and their outcomes.
Research Testing Model Interventions
  • Gale Burford ( University of Vermont ) and Joan Pennell ( North Carolina State University ) tested the efficacy of family group conferencing (FGC) in Newfoundland and Labrador , Canada . The goal was to see if the FGC model, which gives people a say over their affairs while building communities of concern to enhance their safety, would stop child maltreatment and domestic violence in three culturally divergent sites: urban, rural and Inuit. ( http://social.chass.ncsu.edu/jpennell/research.htm )
Training of Social Work Researchers
  • NIMH funded Interdisciplinary Training on Violence and Mental Health at the School of Social Work at the University of Michigan (Grant Number: 1T32MH020041-01A2). Daniel Saunders, serves as the Principal Investigator of this important effort to train more researchers to further understand the causes of violence and discover effective solutions. This training program will build upon the accomplishments since 1994 of the Interdisciplinary Research on Violence Across the Lifespan in bridging these divisions. The program is nationally recognized for its unique emphases on community-based research, testing the effectiveness of prevention and intervention programs, and cross-cultural and cross-national research. Through mentoring and coursework, the predoctoral trainees in the proposed training program will further develop their skills in these areas. (Adapted from CRISP)
  • NIMH just refunded for an additional five years, Predoctoral Research Training Program for Prevention Research in Mental Health Problems and Behavioral Disorders at the University of Washington School of Social Work (Grant Number: 2T32MH020010-06). Paula Nurius serves as Principal Investigator of this effort, which supports the training of social work doctoral students to become prevention researchers.
Recommended Areas for Further Study

The following recommendations as cited in the IASWR-CDC Report emerged from the systematic review of the research projects described above:

  • Conduct additional research on the linkages between domestic violence and child abuse;
  • Undertake research and evaluation efforts to examine the effectiveness of prevention and intervention programs, including family and community-based strategies to prevent neglect;
  • Use diverse methods, including detailed case analysis, interviews with families and service providers and community input to evaluate community based efforts that are targeted to better integrate child maltreatment and domestic violence services including feedback from individuals and groups about what worked, how it worked, and why;
  • Undertake studies to examine the dynamics between domestic violence and child maltreatment on such variables as severity and chronicity of the violence.
  • Create and evaluate coordinated cross-system community responses that will better integrate child maltreatment and domestic violence prevention and intervention efforts, including coordination among child welfare, courts, domestic violence services and the police.
  • Undertake studies to examine the individual, interpersonal, and social system dynamics associated with the co-occurrence of child maltreatment and domestic violence, including links of poverty to maltreatment, substance abuse, mental health and domestic violence;
  • Study the effects of witnessing domestic violence on a child’s development, particularly the long-term effects and potential protective factors;
  • Study the effectiveness of specific programs for battered women with maltreated children and for child witnesses of domestic violence;
  • Study the effectiveness of system responses, in particular coordinated responses to families with both forms of violence;
  • Study the consequences for children and women of reporting domestic violence in child protection and court settings;
  • Study the process and factors by which women evaluate their safety as well as the safety of their children, particularly in cases involving both domestic violence and child maltreatment;
  • Study the dynamics involved in cases where adult victims of domestic violence are, in turn, abusive to children in the home (Schechter & Edelson, 1999, p. 47-48).
  • Test interventions in diverse communities and settings at the individual, family, agency and community levels.
Recommended Strategies for Future Research

The following recommended action steps emerged from the IASWR-CDC convened meeting held in Atlanta , GA on July 8-9, 2003 .

Social Work Contributions to Public Health: Bridging Research and Practice in Violence Prevention – Lessons from Child Maltreatment and Domestic Violence

Research in Violence Prevention
  • Provide opportunities for participation of CDC representatives at the Society for Social Work and Research meeting including technical assistance on applying for CDC research grants.
  • Encourage federal funders to promote cross-disciplinary grant opportunities.
  • Bring together federal partners that support social work research related to violence prevention through an IASWR sponsored meeting.
Translation of Research into Practice
  • Create faculty development institutes modeled after the CDC Academic Centers of Excellence and encourage research and translation efforts, including connections to prevention research centers supported by CDC.
  • Encourage researchers to collaborate across disciplines, with national professional organizations, and with a renewed emphasis on the dissemination of research findings and collaboration with national organizations to publish research outcomes, and use of language that both the public and practitioners can understand.
  • Create a working group on domestic violence, social work, and the CDC with representatives from spheres such as public health, social work faculty, social work professional associations, domestic violence advocacy, and survivors.
  • Support increased collaboration and communication across service sectors including child welfare, economic support and public health to prevent violence and promote community-based participation.
  • Encourage specific outreach to the social work community and organize social work response to ensure input into CDC agenda development efforts.
Strategies for Professional and Continuing Education
  • Increase the capacity of social work education through curriculum models and faculty development, to insure a competent workforce.
  • Enhance the focus on primary prevention in social work education.
Translation of Social Work Efforts into a Public Health Framework:
  • Enhance the engagement of social work researchers in the Injury Center ’s funded centers’ activities.
  • Identify and support public health/social work research efforts.
Selected References And Bibliography
American Humane Association. (1995). Child Protection Leader: A call for collaboration between child abuse and domestic violence advocates . Englewood , CO : American Humane Association.
Athey, J., Kavanagh, L., Bagley, K., & Hutchins, V. (2000). Building the Future: The Maternal and Child Health Training Program . Arlington , VA : National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health.
Brandwein, R. (Ed.). (1999). Battered Women, Children, and Welfare Reform . Thousand Oaks , CA : Sage Series on Violence Against Women.
Caliber Associates. (2003). Emerging Practices in the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect

Washington , DC : Children’s Bureau, Office of Child Abuse and Neglect.

Centers for Disease Control. (2002). Program in Brief. Preventing Child Maltreatment. Department of Health and Human Services.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2003). Public Health Burden . Retrieved January 16, 2003, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/research_agenda/07__violence.html
Center for Impact Research. (2002). Center for Impact Research: About us . Retrieved January 14, 2003, from http://www.impactresearch.org/about/about.html
Coulter, M.L. & Hancock, T. (1989 ). Integrating social work and public health education: A clinical model. Health & Social Work , (14) 3, 157-164.
Danis, F. (2002, October, 10). The social work response to domestic violence . Retrieved June 25, 2003 , from the National Association of Social Workers Website: http://www.socialworkers.org/pressroom/events/domestic_violence/sw_fields_of_practice _dv2.ppt
Danis, F., & Lockhart, L. (2003). Domestic violence and social work education: What do we know, what do we need to know? Journal of Social Work Education , 39(2), 215-224.
DePanfilis, D., Daining, C., Ting, L., Park, E. & Haynes, K. (2003, January). Increasing safety and well being for families at risk for child neglect. Symposium conducted at the Seventh Annual Conference of the Society for Social Work and Research, Washington , DC .
Eisenstat, S.A., & Bancroft, L. (1999). Domestic Violence. The New England Journal of Medicine, 341(12) , 886-892.
Foley, R., Berns, D., Test, G., Bragg, H. L., & Schechter, S. (2000). Guidelines for Public Child Welfare Agencies Serving Children and Families Experiencing Domestic Violence .

Washington , DC : American Public Human Services Association.

Fraser, M. (Ed.) (1997). Risk And Resilience In Childhood: An Ecological Perspective .

Washington , DC : National Association of Social Workers.

Herrenkohl, T.I., Tajima, E.A., Huang, B., Whitney , S.D. , & Kim, M-J. (2003, January). Violence in the family and child behavior: Developmental patterns and outcomes. Symposium conducted at the Seventh Annual Conference of the Society for Social Work and Research, Washington , DC
Hutson, Rutledge. (2003, January). A Vision for Eliminating Poverty and Family Violence: Transforming Child Welfare and TANF in El Paso County, CO. (Issue Brief No. 1).

Washington , DC : Center for Law and Social Policy.

Institute of Medicine . (2002). Confronting Chronic Neglect: The Education and Training of Health Professionals on Family Violence (F. Cohn, M. Salmon, & J. Stobo, Eds.). Washington , DC : National Academy Press.
Jones, S. & Zlotnik, J. (eds.) (1998). Preparing Helping Professionals to Meet Community Needs; Generalizing from the Rural Experience. Alexandria , VA : Council on Social Work Education.
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2003). Intimate Partner Violence Fact Sheet . Retrieved January 27, 2003 , from http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/ipvfacts.html
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2002). CDC Injury Research Agenda.

Atlanta , GA : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

O’Neill, J. (2003, February). Private sector employs most members. NASW News, p. 8.

Sangalang, B., Barth, R., & Rounds, K. (2003, January). Understanding the experiences, perceptions, and behaviors of teen mothers: Evaluation of a statewide adolescent parenting program. Symposium conducted at meeting of the Seventh Annual Conference of the Society for Social Work and Research, Washington , DC .

Schecter, S. & Edelson, J. (1999). Effective Intervention in Domestic Violence & Child Maltreatment Cases: Guidelines for Policy and Practice . Recommendations from the National Council of Juvenile & Family Court Judges Family Violence Department. Reno , Nevada : The National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges.
Sedlak, A. & Broadhurst, D. (1996). The Third National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington , DC , Department of Health and Human Services, National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect.
Shepard, M. and Falk, D. (2000). Final Report on the Evaluation of the Enhanced Domestic Abuse Intervention Program. Accessed May 25, 2003 at http://www.d.umn.edu/%7Emshepard/DAIP.html .
Shook, K. L. (2003). Income, material hardship, and child neglect. [Online]. Abstract from CRISP. Grant Number: 5K01HD041703-02.
Smith, C. & Ireland, T. (2003, January). Shedding light in dark places: the impact of adolescent maltreatment on young adult behavior in the Rochester Youth Development Study.
Symposium conducted at the Seventh Annual Conference of the Society for Social Work and Research, Washington , DC .
Urban Institute (1996, June). Child welfare and domestic violence: Draft site visit summaries. Unpublished manuscript. Washington , DC : Author.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1999). Blending Perspectives and Building Common Ground: A Report to Congress on Substance Abuse and Child Protection. . Washington , DC : Government Printing Office.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families. (2004). Child Maltreatment 2001, Washington , DC : Government Printing Office.
U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Rethinking child welfare practice under the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997: A resource guide. Washington , DC : U.S. Government Printing Office.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

(2000). CDC Fact Book 2000/2001 . Washington , DC : Author. .

Van Soest, D. (1997). The Global Crisis of Violence. Washington , DC : NASW.
World Health Organization. (2002). World Report on Violence and Health: Summary. Geneva , Switzerland : Author.
CDC Research Priorities in Preventing Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Child Maltreatment
(National Center for Injury Prevention and Control 2002, pp. 51-59)
  1. Evaluate strategies to disseminate and implement science-based parenting interventions to prevent child maltreatment.
  2. Evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of interventions and policies to prevent perpetration of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and child maltreatment.
  3. Identify social norms that support intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and child maltreatment and evaluate strategies to change them.
  4. Evaluate training programs about intimate partner violence, sexual violence, child maltreatment, and elder abuse for health professionals.
  5. Evaluate the health consequences of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and child maltreatment victimization across the lifespan.
  6. Examine the development of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and child maltreatment perpetration to identify at-risk populations, modifiable risk and protective factors, optimal times and settings for intervention.
  7. Develop and evaluate surveillance methods for intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and child maltreatment.
  8. Evaluate strategies to disseminate information about preventing intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and child maltreatment.
  9. Evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of interventions and policies for preventing intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and child maltreatment victimization and its consequences.
  10. Evaluate models for integrated community responses to intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and child maltreatment.
  11. Examine the development of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and child maltreatment victimization to identify at-risk populations, modifiable risk and protective factors, and optimal times and settings for intervention.
  12. Identify risk and protective factors and effective prevention strategies of elder abuse.
  13. Study the role(s) of substance use and abuse as precursors to and consequences of intimate partner violence, sexual violence and child maltreatment, victimization, and preparation.
  14. Evaluate the impact of extreme community and environmental stressors on intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and child maltreatment.
  15. Describe service delivery use, impact, and costs of interventions for intimate partner violence, sexual violence and child maltreatment.

June 1st, 2004 at 11:07 am

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